Think of this page as a pile of possibilities - half-formed thoughts that are not quite ready for publication, but which may find their way into this work at some future point as I clean it up, pare it down, and refine it.

"Technology can support relationships, but it cannot create them" (Block, p. 177)


What are the characteristics of participation in a wiki?

  • Accretive, cumulative, iterative
  • Authentic/Real (audience)
  • Collaborative
  • Constructed
  • Distributed
  • Dynamic (content and conversation) - Not stable texts, but address development: dead ends, expansion, recursive issues, etc.
  • Engaging (aesthetically, cognitively, emotionally, socially)
  • Immediate (wysiwyg and also feedback)
  • Integrative (uses a wide variety of powerful technologies to mediate personal, professional, and social goals)
  • Meaningful (purpose, social consequences)
  • Organized (structures a wide variety of content and a large body of information)
  • Personal (allows for customization and personalization)
  • Social

Tie above back to the concerns raised about teacher preparation in the TP section

"Researchers in educational technology should pay more attention to this framework. In our experience-based opinion, we found that it often takes years for teachers (including academics) to acquire concepts that may seem simple. E.g. a Wiki is flat collection of pages and its topology is defined be links and categories (tags). Many teachers that do use wikis, only are able to design activities that engage students in editing single pages (i.e. they better may have used on-line wordprocessing applications) and they can't design knowledge building and linking activities. In other words, understanding the topology of a wiki is a prerequisite for using its full potential. The same is true for learners ... - Daniel K. Schneider 12:10, 14 March 2009 (UTC)"

Content Management System

Why use a wiki instead of a content management system?

Many educational institutions make content management systems such as Angel, Blackboard, Drupal, Joomla, Moodle, or WebCT available to course instructors and their students. These content management systems generally allow instructors to post assignments, calendars, discussion forums, links, multimedia content, and syllabi. They also allow some customization of appearance, and have features that enable administrators to grant different levels of access privileges to users. Course instructors often like these systems because they allow people with limited technical knowledge to make course assignments, information, and readings available to students online using a single system. Students appreciate them for similar reasons. So why would an instructor choose to abandon such a helpful tool?

From a technology-based perspective, content posted to institutional content management systems may be automatically deleted after a certain number of semesters. This means that students are only able to access material posted in the course management system through the end of that time period, and requires instructors to spend significant amounts of time reuploading resources that they wish to make available to students in subsequent sections of the same course. Although one could circumvent this problem by setting the end date of a course several years into the future, there are no guarantees that as policies change, the content will continue to be available. Course management systems can also be clunky. Even when content is well-organized, students may have to click through multiple screens to get from one item to the next, and some of the features of such systems may be unreliable. Wikis offer a fast, flexible, free, functional alternative with a host of additional affordances that allow teacher educators to pursue questions about alignment, articulation, and engagement.


(in content, context, and community)


have the potential to foster a stance toward language learning (and language using) that acknowledges its recursive, iterative, accretive nature. In implicitly emphasizing process over content (learning landscapes), the edit button reinforces the idea. These features also have the potential to lower students' affective filters (Krashen, ?), fostering an environment conducive to language learning by supporting students in taking the risks required to attempt communication in spite of imperfect understanding and skills. Additional affordances of a wiki, such as the history feature which allows


Created through engagement with real issues that are of emotional importance to participants

RSS - Users can receive automatic notifications of updates that are made to these forums and their associated pages through RSS feeds

Need for students to feel ownership in the course

discuss - Provide for interactivity in ways that simply isn’t possible with static texts - social, threaded, searchable - cm scaffolds

Induction, professional engagement, professionalism, retention, recruitment (of mentors and beginning teachers - New Visions Initiative) - ongoing support in a community they feel comfortable with (low affective filter) for 1st few years of teaching;

Share resources with colleagues = increased social network and capital w/ colleagues + reputation, build relationships to leverage resources and support

visibility - of network - They also invoke "relations of credibility" (Burbules & Callister, 2000).

Legitimate Peripheral Participation

Movement from periphery to core also corresponds to an increase in capacity, skills, and understanding?
reinforce the idea that language learning is developmental, and signal to students that mistakes are not only permissible, but expected.
Legitimate peripheral participation in professional communities of practice - Lave & Wenger
Movement from periphery to core also corresponds to an increase in capacity, skills, and understanding?
(discourse communities) - absorb it (acquire it, as in SLA?)

Thus, a learning community should be foregrounded to a much larger degree when designing any sort of course, and must be at the forefront of any plans for online or hybrid courses.

Csikszentmihalyi's (1996) work on creativity indicates that the acceptance of a piece of work as a creative contribution to a field is really validation that an effort at problem-solving has been successful (communciation as a problem of contextual and rhetorical design to be solved - chapters from that textbook and from readings in Punya's class) communication with an audience has been successful.

Csikszentmihalyi, Mihalyi. (1996). Creativity: Flow and the psychology of discovery and invention. NY: HarperPerennial

awareness of and attention to audience changes participation in communities of practice and increases the value of the contributions one is able to make b/c they will be better tailored to the needs of the audience. Consider Elbow's Music of Form and Csikszentmihalyi's Creativity (got the validation by communities of practice right, but neglected the idea of work as a conversation between author, content, and communities of practice within the discipline/domain. Acceptance of a work as a creative contribution to a field is really validation that an effort at problem-solving has been successful (communciation as a problem of contextual and rhetorical design to be solved - chapters from that textbook and from readings in Punya's class) communication with an audience has been successful.

Customizability is about increasing meaning and relevance by making it possible to filter information according to your personal needs/interests/goals. Downside is that it is possible to filter out all perspectives that do not match your own. Gives rise to new forms of censorship.

Agnastopolous, Dorothea, Basmadjian, Kevin G., & Mccrory, Raven S. ( ). The Decentered Teacher and the Construction of Social Space in the Virtual Classroom - Explores the ways in which discourse can be used to redistribute power in online, virtual classrooms.

as contributors gather links of interest to them and readers explore those links in order to understand the writer’s arguments, interests, and opinions more thoroughly


" . . . we teach who we are" (Palmer, 1998, p. 2).

"This 'self-protective' split of personhood from practice is encouraged by an academic culture that distrusts personal truth" (Palmer, 1998, p. 17). ("academic bias against subjectivity" (Palmer, 1998, p. 18)

"On the other hand, once people begin to 'be' online, there is an intrinsic sense in which their identity changes precisely because they are using this technology" (Burbules & Callister, 2000, p. 167).

"'Being online' is both a place and a process . . ." (Burbules & Callister, 2000, p. 173).

"Media Culture is the result of the industrialization of information and culture. Images, sounds and spectacles help produce the fabric of life, dominating leisure time, shaping political views and social behavior, and providing the materials out of which people forge their identities."
Douglas Kellner

"But it is up to the teacher to know and use her own complicated self and the complicated identities of students as tools of practice" (Lampert, 2001, p. 442)
Lampert, Magdalene. (2001). Teaching problems and the problems of teaching. New Haven & London: Yale University Press.

avatar - identity, claim professional credit and responsibility for work, develop a professional reputation, rhetorical considerations of "live" authoring in multimedia and its immediate impact on identity as feedback is received

development of professional identity and credibility/reputation (Britzman)

Customizability - Not just about appearance, also about identity and significance--making personal meaning, increasing personal access/usability, self-expression/representation and creation/mediation of identity in the process of interacting with the tech--the tech makes it possible to try on new identities? Customizability also has implications for increasing cognitive flexibility. More you customize, the more likely you are to be able to see alternatives, to think in flexible ways and from multiple perspectives, to see self and teacher role in new ways?

Unstable Texts: An Ethnographic Look at how Bloggers and Their Audience Negotiate Self-presentation, Authenticity, and Norm Formation - Master's thesis on blogging

Johnson, Amy Suzanne, & Mosley, Melissa. (2006). Examining teachers' literacy stories: Pursuing critical narrative & multimodal approaches Paper presented at the National Reading Conference, Los Angeles, CA. - "This article sets forth a dialogic view of preservice teachers' identities."


In thinking about democratic participation, is there a balance between "those who know" (and have tech skill) and those who don't? Are those who don't always doomed to "virtual poverty" (which has physical consequences) b/c of the fact that they will never have access to the communities where the volume or quality or timeliness of information is being exchanged continuously and with consequences for power? With so much info., those without the literacy skills to locate, navigate, comprehend, represent, package, and disseminate their opinions are going to be less competitive. They won't be able to participate in the conversations with the same influence that those who have those skills will. Also, the idea of transliteracy--being able to read across and select from among various literacies. (Hmmm. I like the idea of virtual poverty.)
usability - the catalyst for systemic adoption

Tierney, Robert, J., Bond, Ernest, & Bresler, Jane. (2006). Examining literate lives as students engage with multiple literacies. Theory Into Practice, 45(4), 359-367. - Abstract discusses the idea of literacy as social practice; suggests that collaborative engagement with digital media offers opportunities for complex, layered, dialogic, transformative conversations about ideas; and expresses concern about the lack of support for this kind of engagement with new literacies in school settings.


Motivation (relatedness/support, challenge/autonomy, values expectancy theory, vision) - Ryan & Deci, Brophy

  • Access - To physical, technical skill, conceptual understanding (so layers of access? The more hardware you have, access to technical support, personal tech skills, and conceptual understanding, the more you can do with the tech?)
  • Affective filter - seem so surprised by the weighty demands of teaching, mediating anxiety, everything in crisis (identity development and transformation issues as they connect to too much instability and uncertainty)
  • Autonomy - Use for own purposes
  • Authenticity
  • Feedback loop - An underexplored characteristic. These technologies are captivating and useful, in part, b/c of the access they provide the users to feedback (re: content, process, person behind the products, etc. These technologies can spur learning and motivation, at least in part, b/c of the feedback component.
  • Flexibility
  • Protect identity - scaffolding, reduce affective filter and cognitive load, increase relatedness
  • Build leadership capacity
  • Collaborative - can edit content and structure as mental maps evolve, different from mere cooperation, takes a core community of trusted people to get there
  • Conversation
  • Nonlinear, layered, multimedia/modal, hyperreading
  • Participatory - higher stakes, greater rewards, more feedback
  • Public, but protected - legitimate peripheral participation
  • Self-archiving (memory), but not permanent - mistakes okay
  • Sharing control
  • Simplicity
  • Social capital (gifts, transactions)
  • Social - relatedness, moves from periphery to core in scaffolded way
  • Subscription
  • Support - just in time, instant, minimal technical knowledge required, but advanced users can insert code and customize.
  • Transparency
  • Trust
  • Visibility - As students engage in work that will be viewed by audiences that extend beyond the confines of the classroom and with the potential for serious social consequences, they adjust their internal attitudes toward and purposes for completing that work. (Purposes)

Alters notions of:

  • Access to knowledge (free, open)
  • Authorship/Editing/Publishing (copyright, ownership, power)
  • Autonomy (motivation)
  • Control (recenters classroom power dynamic)
  • Expert/novice (Potentially repositions them at the core - Scaffolds their movement from periphery to core)
  • Developmental appropriateness (start where students are)

  • Accessibility - Anytime, anywhere access increases likelihood of use (convenient access to just-in-time information and support that can be used to problem-solve . . . more it helps, more we are likely to remember to include it as one of our options when confronted with a new problem, more we do this and it yields success, the more dependent we become on it and the more infused the tech becomes into society, culture, and community . . . more you use it, more uses you discover for it--kids without mirrors taking photos of selves with cell phones, adjusting, then taking another photo to see if the adjustment worked. E-mail - wiki to wiki, can do everything class related in one context (boundedness reduces complexity and uncertainty?)

"Knowledge is produced in response to questions. And new knowledge results from the asking of new questions; quite often new questions about old questions. Here is the point: Once you have learned how to ask questions -- relevant and appropriate and substantial questions -- you have learned how to learn and no one can keep you from learning whatever you want or need to know" Neil Postman & Charles Weingartner, 1969, p. 23.


(and curriculum - focus design efforts on creating flexible, responsive, student-centered learning environments)

and the sorely needed transformations in "technological pedagogical content knowledge" (Mishra & Koehler, 2006) needed for that growth to occur.

wikis push pedagogy, wikis just turn into traditional teaching w/o a transformation of pedagogy (TPCK)

"One of the marks of professionalism in teaching is precisely being able to make the adjustments or to create the improvisations that will render the materials effective" (Eisner, 2002, p. 149).

“Students cannot learn from teachers or technologies. Rather, students learn from thinking” (David H. Jonassen, Kyle L. Peck, & Brent G. Wilson, p. 2).

"Classroom practices remain largely teacher-centered, with lectures predominating. Subject content is taken as more or less given, and questions about how to teach Peggy Sue are answered in terms of "the guidelines. This pattern of practice follows a logic rooted in a professional culture that casts teacher as expert and student as recipient of knowledge" (McLaughlin & Talbert, 2001, p. 19).

  • Information becomes knowledge when it is brought in relation to other pieces of information
  • Knowledge becomes understanding when it is brought into relation with experience
  • Knowledge is not static, but rather dynamic
  • Cognition is distributed
  • Meaning is constructed, situated, etc.
  • representations (formatting tools, widgets)

Self-study of pedagogical practice

Beginning teacher educators often don’t realize that teaching someone else to teach a language successfully requires a different set of skills than those they used successfully as world language teachers. It is less about content and more about positioning the teacher candidate to perceive relevant . . . . When designing a course or developing a curriculum, most instructors tend to focus on the content they intend to teach. However, this approach does not take into consideration where breakdowns in learning tend to occur.

Course management systems tend to center the experience on content and on the teacher.

Wiki as product, practice, AND perspective!!!!!

Artifact is a crystallization of a problem

The PEDAGOGY of research. Because research can be a form of teaching . . . is designed to teach . . .

Teacher preparation as a problem of shaping vision - slowing perception (Eisner), knowing what to attend to (expert/novice, intuition literature and Eisner), recognizing "seeing" possibilities inherent in context (design, rhetoric and composition literature, Jonassen's & Mishra's problem-framing), developing judgment w/o rules, teaching conversation w/ work (design literature), ability to adapt (flexible purposing - Eisner), Ma's knowledge packages and concept knots, visual cognition

Few world language classrooms are using wikis as tools for teaching or learning. Of those that are, most tend to be implementing them to facilitate the daily administrative tasks of the classroom. Few are taking full advantage of their potential to support collaboration, communication across cultures, ongoing evaluation, or the development of learning communities.


  • Standards: FL, ISTE, NBPTS
  • Technology
  • a repository of knowledge, skills, expertise
  • Transdisciplinary
  • Short time period
  • No mental map

My Brilliant Failure -

Wikipedia and the new curriculum -

Ferdig, Richard E. (2006, September). Assessing technologies for teaching & learning: The importance of technological pedagogical content knowledge. British Journal of Educational Technology, 37(5). - Discusses pedagogy as the foundation of innovation in teaching and learning. Emphasizes that neither pedagogies nor technologies can be evaluated outside of the context of the people who use them.

Abbey, Nicholas. (2005, September). Developing 21st century teaching & learning: Dialogic literacy. New Horizons for Learning. - Suggests that a combination of "new technologies" and "new pedagogies" produces highest gains in achievement. Suggests a shift in the dialogic nature of assignments (changing the ratio of written to oral assignments), and advocates for building relationships, deep learning, futures thinking, and leadership to produce social change.

Herrington, Anthony, Herrington, Jan, & Glazer, Evan. (2006). An authentic approach to facilitating transfer of teachers' pedagogical knowledge. In Herrington, Tony, & Herrington, Jan (Eds.). (2006). Authentic Learning Environments in Higher Education. London: Information Science Publishing. - Book chapter on the subject based on research conducted with preservice math teachers.

Hull, Glynda A., & Nelson, Mark Evan. (n.d.). Locating the semiotic power of multimodality. - Advocates (based on several case studies) that the power of multimodal texts like those created via digital storytelling is in the relationships they make possible.

Malewski, Erik, Phillion, JoAnn, & Lehman, James D. (2005). A Freirian framework for technology-based virtual field experiences. Contemporary Issues in Technology and Teacher Education [Online serial], 4(4). - Outlines the importance of dialogue and social processes in the development of understanding and explains a project in which technology was used as a key component of preservice teachers' field experiences. Although this project uses video, there is much here re: the development of preservice teachers' ability to engage in dialogic instruction through technology.

Remote Access: The Social Life of Knowledge - The last few paragraphs of this blog post raise the distinction between student work as artifacts v. student work as resources, emphasize the social nature of knowledge and the need for using web 2.0 tools to take full advantage of this, and the importance of playing with knowledge.

Progression: Hardware barrier (physical accessibility) --> anytime/anywhere (mobility) --> everywhere (ubiquity) --> everyone (usability) --> "me" (customizability) ----> meaning-making

Wikis have added new layers of complexity to the traditional ways I have always thought about the production of scholarship and the authorship associated with that.
Wiki pushes my perspective and my scholarship.
Wiki as curriculum
Design as authorship – Idea, structure, content, labels.
Intellectual work of a pedagogical text . . . not a research text, but still intellectual work . . . what kinds of authoring moves I made in designing this wiki as a pedagogical (and social) and digital text. What kinds of authoring moves go into digital composition, and more specifically, the intellectual work of digital writing.

Outline principles – things I might like to change, show a few examples

Limits pushed in practice . . . wiki example of a limitation of research in education or in general. What happened here exposes this limit of this one line of research, it can be explained by other lines of research. I’m going to build on that other research to explain how I’m coming to understand how the use of the wiki in my classroom needs to be revised.


3 modes of communication at once


development of a professional identity within a professional culture -
Wiki people, practice, projects, process
connections to other related conversations - Text that spans contexts
comparisons of own perspectives with those of others = shifts in thinking
communities - relatedness, legit. periph. partic., situated learning -
Community required in order for extended conversations to occur

Need just-in-time direction to exact page on which resources are located

Developmental and transitional

In RELATION - Audience changes own sense of identity - changed name from GarysGirl to Frau Cartwright

Changes models available to future teachers

Shifts dynamics of power

Transmission to discussion (dialogic instruction)
Teacher to class to individual students
Hierarchical to cooperative to collaborative

Relevance - what, when, where, how they want it -
Usability - fast, simple, consistent

Delivery - interactive (discussion boards), sensory (audio, animations, multimedia, ppt, videos), visual, autonomy (learner controls speed of delivery, which learning objects to interact with - Meskill)

Complex, ill-structured domain - oversimplified - wiki helps them map the field and makes understanding of links more explicit
Heavy cognitive and emotional load - just in time support
Novices expected to be experts - experts helping novices
Focus on teaching, not students - Focus on students, not teaching

Must assess process, not just product (b/c product is a snapshot of students' development in time). How they navigate the process is a way of assessing their thinking/problem-solving


Intellectual work of a pedagogical text - what kinds of authoring moves I made in designing this wiki as a pedagogical (and social) and digital text. What kinds of authoring moves go into digital composition, and more specifically, the intellectual work of digital writing.

Design as authorship – Idea, structure, content, labels.

Wikis have added new layers of complexity to the traditional ways I have always thought about the production of scholarship and the authorship associated with that.

Multimedia authoring changes the ways I can engage individual readers, draws them more deeply into the text

Authoring on a wiki makes it possible for me to engage multiple (yet very divergent) audiences in conversation with and around the work. (Including students, colleagues, researchers, and scholars).

It changes the writing process.

Profile –Evidence of the social nature of writing, it provides readers with an opportunity to understand the author (and, therefore, the text) in new ways

rename - as purpose changes

revert - not permanent, okay to make mistakes

Feedback - An underexplored characteristic. These technologies are captivating and useful, in part, because of the access they provide to feedback regarding content, process, and so forth. These technologies can spur learning and motivation, at least in part, because of the feedback component.

tag - Allow for writers to organize their writing, to represent networks of knowledge in concrete ways that allow them to be more easily understood and restructured, and support reflection, develop mental models and shifts focus to users and retrieval (like teachers who shift focus to thinking about students) Cite that one study re: encoding

"Perhaps the most common pedagogical application of wikis in education is to support writing instruction. At Teaching Wiki (, Joe Moxley, a professor of English at the University of South Florida, lists a number of the medium’s strengths for the teaching of writing skills: wikis invigorate writing ("fun" and "wiki" are often associated); wikis provide a low-cost but effective communication and collaboration tool (emphasizing text, not software); wikis promote the close reading, revision, and tracking of drafts; wikis discourage "product oriented writing" while facilitating "writing as a process"; and wikis ease students into writing for public consumption.24
In addition to fostering the development of writing skills as they are already understood, wikis may prove to be invaluable for teaching the rhetoric of emergent technologies. Jill Walker, a hypertext theorist and prominent weblogger, suggests that whereas online technologies are fine for teaching things that can also be done with a paper notebook, a more important ability "to teach our students is network literacy: writing in a distributed, collaborative environment." Walker recognizes that bringing network literacy to the classroom is no simple task, that it "means jolting students out of the conventional individualistic, closed writing of essays only ever seen by [their] professor."25 As wikis enter the academy, students may not be the only ones jolted out of conventional practices." (Lamb, 2004).

Profile –Evidence of the social nature of writing, it provides readers with an opportunity to understand the author (and, therefore, the text) in new ways

Moxley & Meehan (2007) suggest that our classrooms (particularly those in the field of writing, rhetoric, and composition) do not reflect our increased understanding regarding the "collaborative nature of language and literacy" and discusses the ways in which current academic culture works against progress in this regard, devaluing collaboration by rewarding individual authorship. The article also underscores the importance of reframing the teacher's role from one of control to one of facilitator of emergent creativity.

Myers J. (2006). Literacy practices & digital literacies: A commentary on Swenson, Rozema, Young, McGrail, & Whitin. Contemporary Issues in Technology and Teacher Education, 6(1), 61-66. - Article advocates that educators interested in literacy practices consider new technologies not just in terms of tools or composing, but rather, as being grounded in discourse communities that shape social practices and thinking


Conclude with the idea of transformation - personal identity, pedagogical understanding, professional networks/participation, etc.

In what ways might you envision using a wiki in your own teaching context? - Add research references from here, plus these: